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The school of Imam al-Kadhim (A)

 

The school of Imam al-Kadhim (A)

Imam Musa (al-kadhim) the son of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (A) is the shining star on the shining planet, and the 7th Imam from the Ahlulbayt of the holy progeny of the holy prophet (PBUH), and from the vicegerents of the holy Ahlulbayt after the holy prophet (PBUH).

He was the Imam and leader during his time.  Also, the loneliest during that time, he was the 7th lantern of light from the lineage of the holy messenger Muhammad (PBUH) and his line of descendants. He was the Imam of the Muslims, and the master of the student’s, seekers of knowledge and scholars of his time, without any adversary after his father Imam al-Sadiq (A).

He is void of any introduction, for the great name of Allah (SWT) is manifested in him, prestige and nobility shine in him and from him like the sun shining of the evening rays. He inherited his prestige, grandeur, and his great honor like no other in comparison, until his greatness was realized and rooted back to Imam Ali (Ameer al-Mumneen), the leader of the brave, the lion of Allah (SWT) Imam Ali son of Abu Talib (A) and his holy grandmother the leader of the lady of the worlds Hazrat Syeda Fatima al-Zahra (A) the holy infallible, and the greatest lantern of light in the eyes of Allah (SWT) till eternity.

His Grandmother the leader of the lady of the worlds Hazrat Syeda Fatima al-Zahra (A) the holy infallible, and the greatest lantern of light in the eyes of Allah (SWT) till eternity. 

He is Musa al-Kadhim (A) the son of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq (A) the son of Imam al-Baqir (A) the son of Imam Ali Zain al-Abdeen (A) the son of Imam of all martyrs al-Hussain son of Imam Ameer al-Mumneen (Imam Ali) the son of Abu Talib (A).

His mother is Hamida al-barbariya (barbarian) the daughter of sa’ad nicknamed by al-musafat , and it is narrated that she is (Andalusia) known by the nickname of (lu’lu’a) a loyal maid, Imam al-Baqir (A) bought her and granted her to his son Imam al-Sadiq (A) and then out of this union Imam Musa the son of Jafar (A) was born.

In another tradition Imam al-Sadiq nicknamed her al-mussafat: and said Hamida al-mussafat from Andalusia is like a golden brass.

Imam al-Sadiq (A) cared for her upbringing and education until she became a prominent learned scholar that women would refer back to, in their Islamic jurisprudential, manners, and Islamic beliefs.

Imam al-Kadhim (A) was born in the country, in a village that is between the city and the country, about 23 miles.

His pure holy birth, according to most traditions, it was on Sunday the 7th in Safar the year 128 hijri. In another tradition his birth was on a Tuesday before sunrise the year 129. His family nickname is Abu Ibrahim, Abu al-hassan , Abu ali , and it was said Abu ismail, and Abu hassan al-mathi , and Abu hassan al-awal .

His nicknames (A) are many which inform us about his greatness and honor, some of his characteristics include: the pious slave, the scholar, the trustworthy, the patient, the loyal, the devout of Ahlulbayt, the savior of the orphans, the generous of the Arabs, the most obedient during his time, the one who has mastered the jurisprudence of the Thaqalayn, the one who fed the needy, the ornament of the learned, the companion of the holy Quran, the companion of the long prostration, (nafs al-zakia)the pure self, and others , and the most popular is : (al-kadhim) the one who restrains his anger.

The son of shahr ashub said: he was named al-kadhim when he controlled his anger and shut his eyes as to what the oppressors were doing to him, until he got killed while in jail, and the son of al-atheer said: they used to nickname him al-kadhim because he used to do good to the one who did bad to him, and this was his habit all the time.

The length of his life: he reached the kindness of his lord, and his neighboring inside the shadow of the throne of Allah (SWT), and so he completed 55 years.

20 years with his father (A), and 35 years after and that completed his Imamate.

It was said that he was arrested when he was 45 years old.

His martyrdom and death: he was martyred by the poison of Haroon al-abbasi in the jail of al-sindi the son of shahik in Baghdad, the year of 183 hijri. His martyrdom was on what was 5 days left from the month of Rajab the year 183 hijri, and it was also said 186 hijri, his grave is in the holy city of kadhimiya next to al-karkh in Baghdad, and so his town was known as the holy city of al-kadhimiya, may Allah (SWT) protect it until the day of Judgement.

A light summary of the lifetime of the Imam:

All of the 12 Ahlulbayt from the descendants of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) are from one light, manifested in them the reality of the mercy that was sent to mankind, as they all seek the same goal however they carry different roles. Their main goal was to preserve the Islamic laws and applying it until the world was filled with justice and peace after it was filled with injustice and oppression, even though their roles differed in propagating the message and protecting it pertaining to their specific circumstances, and according to the time that they were living in, and their obstacles and what tools they had to overcome them.

As for the life of Imam Musa the son of Jafar al-kadhim (A) and his holy way of life in all of its aspects and horizons, it was distinguished by the boldness of his truthfulness, and his unwavering determination in front of the unbelievable events at that time, in its negative approach, and by the obvious manners that did not misguide, distort, entice, intimidate, or change him, however, he was characterized with justice and balance, and consistent in the way of life of the greatest prophet that was sent to mankind Muhammad (PBUH), his guidance and his adherence to the straight path, personified in the holy Quran with his character, and manners for he was the vocal Quran.

Imam al-kadhim (A) and the time of his father Imam al-Sadiq (A) witnessed many great events and many political crisis, especially the armed revolutions. One of the main revolutions that took place was the revolution of the martyr Zaid son of ali and the Hashmi revolution that was fought with the oppressive Umayyad rule, that was ruling the Muslim nation at that time, in which it plundered the honor, humanity, under the banner of (the contentment of the descendants of the progeny of Muhammad (PBUH).  Moreover, all the nations responded from every land and voice. The nation strived to gain revenge for the loss of its honor, and the removal of the oppression and the injustice of the Umayyads. The Muslim nation at that time believed in the descendants of the holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and that if any salvation towards God was to be achieved it had to go through the holy immaculate Imams . In order to enjoy the divine rights that were bestowed by Allah (SWT) upon mankind and for them to be realized on humanity on a social level the leadership of the infallibles must be applied.

There was no sign of these revolutions being as a result of supporting the rule of Bane Abbas for the obvious reason that this family was not practicing the principles of Islam at all and did not have any credit with the population or any serious work that would serve Islam.

Thereafter, the revolution deviated from its original plan since it was planned in al-abwa since the pledging of Muhammad son of Abdullah son of al-hassan the one whose self is pure for caliph leadership. Thereafter, the revolution started going into the direction of supporting Bane Abbas to the entrance of government by the leadership the father of Muslim al-khurasani with the secret agreement which took place at night, in which al-Abbas army, which held the reign of power was focused in Khorasan and then it made its way towards Baghdad, and Syria.

And the rule of Bane al-Abbas did not settle until the seas of blood was shed, and mountains of victims were martyred including: the innocent elderly, sick, and children. 

The unfortunate brutal measures were practiced by al-Mansour al-abbasi especially against the general numbers of the Allawi’s. These brutal practices left a deep mark in the wellbeing of the two Imams : Imam al-Sadiq (A) and Imam al-kadhim (A) especially after the torture that was placed onto the sons of al-hassanain by al-Mansour, and what was behind this vicious attack and its results, and in continuation to these unfortunate events, the horrible massacre in which hundreds of victims from the alawis were sacrificed in what is known as the (فخ) (fakh) incident near the holy city of Mecca.

During the lifetime of Imam al-Kadhim (A) he lived through many difficult events, and was distinguished in character by maintaining full control of his anger (al-kadhim) and patience, and what he had to endure from oppression by the evil rulers of his time the caliphs responsible for all sorts of unfairness and immorality, for they were responsible for their eagerness in his persecution and torture.

Some of the Abbasid rulers like al-Mahdi, and Haroon, tried to kill the Imam and even assassinate him many times in many different ways, at last Haroon al-abbasi arrested the Imam and placed him into the dark pits of the corners of the jail.

After he dragged the Imam from the holy city of his grandfather the holy prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and handed him over to Iraq, and put him in the jail of Basra a city in Iraq, then Baghdad for many years in which he had to experience deprivation, oppression, and abuse of rights, also going through the pain , suffocation, while staying silent , and not speaking a letter or complaining to anyone of these kinds of tragedies that were paining him , however his approach was the opposite of his oppressors, he was the one to thank his creator for giving him the opportunity and made him available to worship his lord in seclusion, and in obedience and solitude.

Until he witnessed his enemy Haroon al-abassi , and what was not witnessed by the others as to what the al-Abbasids did to him, since he was inside the jail of al-Fadhil son of rabee , he informed him of his worship and staying awake in the nights in worship , and how he displaced himself away from the dunya materialistic world and focusing on his relationship with Allah (SWT) in which Haroon himself said : “there is no doubt that he is from the pious of Bane Hashem .”        

Moreover, his way of life captured the emotions and hearts, in which his life was filled with colorful meanings, and charged with nobility, integrity, and holiness, and his piety in this world and his abandoning of this world towards Allah (SWT).

And in the jail of al-sindy son of shahik by the command of Haroon, he made him drink the poison in which it led to his martyrdom while he was in his delicate worship during his nightly prayers.

The school of Imam al-kadhim (A):

If we look at a specific part of the life of our dear master and Imam al-kadhim (A), we will find ourselves in front of a great treasure, and a self that is reassured that is overflowing with beauty and goodness, holding the bountiful giving and the appropriate giving for the Muslim nation as a pillar during its time.

Just as our great Imam took the responsibility of administrating the jobs of the Islamic university after his father Imam al-Sadiq (A) and his grandfather Imam al-Baqir (A) the one who encompassed the knowledge of the first and the last of the holy progeny, he established this eternal school after his father, which is based on the Thaqalain and the holy book of Allah (SWT) , and the hidden proof of Allah (SWT) , which is considered the first educational system in Islam , and the first institute in which many heavy weights and great scholars graduated from .

Many of them were his companions, narrators, and students. This institute moved forward towards the coming generations until our time now, and will continue till the time of reappearance, in which it holds the soul of Islam and the reality, and its holy guidance, eternally with the blessings of the holy Quran in every era.

With his guiding institution, he was able to combat the problems that were thrown at him during his time, such as the destructive ideas of atheism, exaggeration of divine beliefs, and others, for it was targeting the termination of Islam and the procuration of its supporters.

Aside from his dire circumstances. Some circumstances stood in his way during his time that prevented him from achieving the maximum of his objectives. There were some components that enabled him to do what others could not do, of course that being the divine help from Allah and including his divine characteristics and abilities. Just as his father confronted and combated the most eminent scholars of his time with his debates with ideas such as atheism, exaggeration in divine beliefs, and other destructive ideas that raided the Islamic world at that time, those ideas promoted the dismantling of the fabric of the Muslim society and their social ties, and the deception of the general opinion in the different sectors of belief and in the society. Imam al-kadhim (A) strived and who was before him in leadership his father Imam al-Sadiq (A) and his grandfather Imam al-Baqir (A) to wake up the Muslims at that time and warn and protect them from the false rumors, and the misguided ideas and beliefs.

Imam al-kadhim (A) had many talents and one of his talents that made him stand out during his time was the ability to debate and force his opponents to submit to the truth. His debates for example, with the Jews and the Christians, also with the caliphs of his time. He was able to overcome all of their false claims with his intellectual divine abilities, and obsolete proofs, and he was able to foil their false pretexts and what they were intending, for it was the command of his eminent role in deconstructing the false misconceptions of the atheists, and the opposing sides in the matters of true divine teachings of (tawhid), also proving the falsity and the fraudulent beliefs of the atheists, hypocrites, and the misguided.  

Aside from the greatness of the Imam, his companions, and students played a major role in disseminating the idea of Imamate as a divine principle, companions such as Husham son of al-hakam , Husham son of salim, and mumin al-taq and others, and from their debates and discussions with other sects of Islam and their leaders and so on. The main factor that led to the spread of the divine ideas of the Ahlulbayt and their news and great qualities and there solid approach in between the folds of the Muslims, was as a result of their solid proofs, intellect, that was based on a knowledgeable approach, and its base on the research: based on subjects, and free thought, also based on an alert conscious.

Imam al-Kadhim (A) after his father (A), became a lamp and a shining light of insight and knowledge, he began to spread the knowledge of the Ahlulbayt by giving lessons and lectures, and the traditions and news of his holy fathers and his grandfather the holy prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in various divine subjects of knowledge, such as beliefs, manners, Jurisprudence, traditions, Quran commentary, and other subjects upon his students, and holy companions.  

From this school of knowledge a great amount of scholars graduated, some of whom became narrators of the traditions, about (539) scholars, who became experts on Jurisprudence, and narrators of traditions, it was mentioned in (ahsan al-tarajim le as-hab Imam al-Kadhim (A)) that (532) men and then added 7 others at the end of the book, had graduated under his guidance.

Some of his companions stood out from the rest and they were 6 who were the most honest and trustworthy in relating the traditions about the holy Ahlulbayt , about 18 and some said 19 became the most popular who were experts in Jurisprudence and narrations . Whom were from the companions of Imam al-Baqir (A), Imam al-Sadiq (A), and Imam al-Kadhim (A). They are the ones who became popular and known as the companions of ijma’, 6 of them from Imam father of Jafar, al-Baqir (A) and 6 from the companions of the father of Abdullah al-Sadiq (A) and 6 from the companions of the father of al-hassan al-kadhim (A) and they are (unis son of abdul Rahman) and (safwan son of yihya baya’ al-sabri) (ibn abi nasr al-bizenti) may Allah (SWT) be pleased from them for they are of the authentic and respected.

This is in the department of Jurisprudence. As for the other departments such as in the department of thinking such as beliefs (Aqaed) and Quran, and language, and what knowledge followed .There are other groups who are specialized in these fields.

As narrated on Sayed son of Tawoos (may Allah (SWT) be pleased with him), there was a group of specific people the father of al-hassan Musa (A) from the Ahlulbayt from the Shia who used to attend his gathering, and in their possession their inks and pens and tablets that they used to write on and note what was issued as a verdict from the Imam (A).

Ahmad son of hanbal was the Imam of the hanbali sect who used to narrate what Imam al-Kadhim (A) used to say and he said : he narrated to me :Imam Musa son of Jafar said : he narrated to me :the father of Jafar son of Muhammad he said : he narrated to me : the father of Muhammad son of ali he said: he narrated to me the father of ali the son of Hussain he said : he narrated to me the father of al-hussain son of ali he said : he narrated to me the father of ali son of abu Talib (A) he said: he said: the holy prophet said : then ahmad said: “If this chain of narration was read on an insane person he would have gained horizons.”

And what was taken from Imam al-Kadhim (A) and what was narrated from him (A) : al-khateeb about the history of Baghdad. Al-samani in the letter of al-qawamia, and abu saleh ahmad al-muathin in Arbaeen, and abu Abdullah son of bata in the ibana, and al-tha'labi in al-kashf and al-bayan .

Indeed, the companions of the Imam and his students played a major role with their precise actions in spreading the knowledge of Islam and its various Islamic subjects to the specific (khawas) and general people. Indeed the school of Imam al-Kadhim (A) graduated groups of distinguished scholars who were experts in Jurisprudence such as the great, honorable, and respected Husham son of al-hakam. Indeed, he was an expert in (kalam) divine beliefs, and with his style of debating, until he became the most popular scholar during his time, and he was responsible for narrating most of the traditions in beliefs (Aqaed) verdicts (Ahkam), and commentary (tafseer), he was mostly known for his debating the ideas of the atheists, and misguided, the opposing, and the hypocrites, and others. He would always emerge victorious in his discussions, and some of the ones that he would debate would even go back to the truth and believe in Islam, and in the belief of the Ahlulbayt. Therefore it is with the lines of truth and History that we can see how these events applied themselves.

Written in Arabic By: Syed Adil alawy

Translated in English by : Mohamed al-Najjar